Prostatitis is inflammation and swelling of the tissues of the prostate (prostate gland). And 50% of men between the ages of 18 and 50 face such a disappointing diagnosis.<1_img_centerxx>
The disease usually develops slowly, without obvious signs and for many years brings a minimum of concern to its owner.
A man has been living with prostatitis for years, does not see a doctor, and allows the disease to become chronic with serious complications.
When the patient nevertheless arrives at the clinic, it is already too late: the prostatitis becomes malignant or leads to infertility. So what are the first signs of the disease and how to deal with them?
Prostate disease in men has characteristic symptoms and requires immediate treatment. But the disease is insidious. Sometimes its signs don't appear for years.
During this time, the inflammatory process develops slowly, affecting more and more new tissue and leading to impotence and infertility.
In order not to trigger the disease, a man should pay attention to the characteristic signs that accompany any type of prostatitis:
- pain and burning sensation in the perineum, lower abdomen, scrotum and the area where the prostate is located;
- increased urination, weak flow, the appearance of pus from the urethra in the form of fibers or white flakes;
- rapid or on the contrary prolonged (sometimes painful) ejaculation, long nocturnal erection, sexual dysfunction, decreased libido;
- deterioration in the quality of sperm, change in its quantity;
- fatigue and irritability, general weakness.
Symptoms of the disease may appear all together or appear separately; sometimes they are so subtle that they are attributed to fatigue or lack of sleep. If a man notices at least one of the above symptoms, he should see a doctor.
It should not be assumed that prostate problems are the lot of people who have crossed the threshold of their 30th birthday. Prostatitis can occur in any sexually mature man, and now people between the ages of 18 and 20 are getting sick more and more often.
Causes of the disease
Prostatitis in men is caused by various reasons:
- long abstinence from sex, stagnation and poor blood circulation in the organs of the genitourinary system;
- injuries, hypothermia, age-related changes;
- genital infections, viruses, bacteria.
In combination with factors that create a favorable situation for bodily damage, these causes cause inflammation of the prostate.
- promiscuous or irregular sex life, artificial lengthening or interruption of sex;
- sedentary, sedentary lifestyle;
- past infections, chronic diseases of the genitourinary system;
- decreased immunity, tendency to allergies, hormonal disturbances;
- frequent hypothermia;
- premature emptying of the bladder and irregular bowel movements;
- stress and emotional overload;
- excessive physical activity or heavy lifting;
- smoking and alcoholism;
- lack of vitamins, micro- and macro-elements.
If a man's body is affected by at least one of the above factors, he has a high probability of developing prostatitis. In this case, it is advisable to undergo a preventive examination every six months.
Prostatitis can take different forms and be caused by different reasons. Depending on this, it is divided into different types.
A large number of varieties of prostatitis leads to the fact that in each case individual treatment should be prescribed. You shouldn't listen to friends' advice and drug reviews. What worked in one case will turn out to be completely ineffective in another.
It develops due to the effect on the prostate tissue of pathogenic microorganisms that enter the prostate through the urethra or bladder and lead to inflammation.
Sometimes acute prostatitis occurs after chronic infectious diseases - sinusitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, caries - or as a result of hormonal disorders.
Signs of acute prostatitis manifest themselves intensely:
- constant weakness, fatigue, malaise;
- slight increase in temperature;
- pain in the groin, anus, sometimes extending to the back, lower back and legs;
- frequent urination, inability to empty the bladder completely, low pressure, stinging, urinary retention;
- lack of erection, impaired ejaculation;
- purulent discharge from the urinary tract.
Acute prostatitis is dangerous because the inflammation spreads quickly, affecting nearby organs. Sometimes this leads to extensive abscess of adjacent tissues and vascular thrombosis.
Usually, the treatment is not carried out at home, but in the hospital. If the therapy was correct, the acute prostatitis is completely cured.
If the treatment turns out to be untimely or insufficient, the disease becomes chronic.
It becomes the consequence of an untreated acute infectious prostatitis (bacterial form) or results from trauma, hypothermia (abacterial form).
Symptoms of chronic prostatitis during the period of remission almost do not manifest themselves.
A man can celebrate:
- discomfort or slight tightness in the groin;
- increased urination, weakened flow;
- constant weakness, apathy;
- decreased libido.
How does chronic prostatitis manifest itself during an exacerbation?
It is accompanied by symptoms characteristic of an acute illness. Chronic prostatitis is characterized by a wave course: after an exacerbation, a period of remission will certainly come.
Men prefer to wait until the end of the acute period and forget about the disease for several months. Few go to the doctor.
The cause of infectious prostatitis is the damage to prostate tissue by viruses, bacteria or fungi.
By type of pathogenic microorganism, the following types of infectious prostatitis are distinguished:
- bacterial (intestinal or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus, streptococcus);
- viral (herpes virus, human papilloma, cytomegalovirus);
- mycoplasma (mycoplasma);
- Trichomonas (Trichomonas);
- gonorrheic (gonococcus);
- chlamydia (chlamydia);
- tuberculous (Koch's bacillus);
- fungal (Candida fungus);
Symptoms of infectious prostatitis repeat symptoms of an acute form of the disease.
If the disease is left untreated, it leads to a purulent process that quickly spreads to all nearby organs. Such a condition, which threatens the life of the patient, becomes an indication for surgical intervention.
Its cause is stones in the prostate. This form is found in older men who have refused treatment for a chronic illness.
Symptoms of calculator prostatitis are similar to those of chronic disease, but sometimes they are supplemented by specific signs:
- pain in the sacrum and lower back that gets worse after walking, sitting for a long time, or having sex;
- the presence of blood in the semen.
Most often it is found during the passage of an ultrasound.
It occurs due to the stagnation of the secretion of the prostate or blood in the veins that permeate this organ. Congestion is a consequence of irregular sex life, wearing tight underwear, physical inactivity or alcohol abuse.
The symptoms of this form of the disease are mild, reminiscent of the signs of chronic prostatitis.
Each type of prostatitis has its own consequences for the body.
For example, acute prostatitis that is not treated in time becomes chronic or leads to the following complications:
- purulent inflammation of the prostate;
- swelling of the prostate;
- acute urinary retention.
Usually, such consequences appear rarely, since acute prostatitis manifests itself clearly, and the man goes to the doctor.
Chronic prostatitis, which is not that obvious and develops over a longer period of time, can cause a lot more problems.
Complications of chronic prostatitis and its consequences on male health:
- sclerosis of prostate tissue;
- cystitis, pyelonephritis;
- abscess of the prostate;
- vesiculitis, epididymitis;
- calculous formations in the bladder and prostate;
- renal failure;
- adenoma and prostate cancer.
With advanced chronic prostatitis, many pathological changes are irreversible. For example, problems with urination and sexual dysfunction will no longer be eliminated by simply curing prostatitis.
If characteristic symptoms appear, a man should consult a urologist or andrologist. The doctor makes the diagnosis of "acute prostatitis" on the basis of an investigation, an examination of the patient, a digital rectal examination and an analysis of the secretion of the prostate.
Usually these studies do not cause discomfort, but during an exacerbation they can cause painful sensations.
The study of the secretion of the prostate reveals the nature of the disease - bacterial or abacterial. With the bacterial origin of prostatitis, the secret is also sought for resistance to antibacterial drugs.
Chronic inflammation is more difficult to detect.
For this, a whole range of laboratory techniques and equipment is used:
- bacteriological seeding of prostatic secretions and urine to determine infection;
- biochemical analysis of venous blood to determine the level of ESR, PSA and leukocytes;
- urethral discharge analysis;
- prostate biopsy;
- Ultrasound (through the abdominal wall) and TRUS (through the rectum);
- MRI and CT scan of the damaged organ;
- urodynamic research;
- X-ray examination.
Why can not a diagnosis be made solely on the basis of the clinical manifestations of prostatitis?
The fact is that the doctor must identify not only the presence of the disease, but also its cause, in order to choose an effective treatment.
If acute prostatitis can be eliminated in 1 treatment, chronic prostatitis is treated much longer. Sometimes the patient becomes a regular visitor to the urologist's office. The more correctly the treatment is selected and the more accurately the patient follows the doctor's recommendations, the longer the period of remission will be.
How to treat prostatitis?
Treating prostatitis is a long process that takes at least 1. 5 months and involves a variety of procedures.
The key to successful therapy is a timely visit to the clinic, high professionalism of the doctor, correct diagnosis and strict adherence of the patient to all recommendations of a specialist.
For prostatitis, complex treatment is prescribed, which includes taking anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics at the stage of exacerbation and physiotherapy and massage at the stage of remission. These methods alone will not have the desired effect.
Drug therapy lasts 3-4 weeks and includes the following groups of drugs:
- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to eliminate pain and inflammation;
- antibacterial drugs (fluoroquinols, cephalosporins, penicillins, macrolides, tetracyclines) for the treatment of bacterial prostatitis and diseases caused by hypothermia;
- immunomodulators, vitamin and mineral complexes to stimulate the body's defenses;
- hormonal drugs to eliminate hormonal imbalance and stagnation of secretion of the prostate in its tissues;
- muscle relaxants and alpha-blockers to relax muscles (eliminate inflammation of the prostate, relieve urethral and bladder spasms, facilitate the process of urination).
Drugs available in the form of rectal suppositories are particularly effective.
They deliver the active substance to the prostate tissue faster than tablets and injections and have a better healing effect.
Acute prostatitis is treated with medication until the disease goes into remission. In advanced cases, the patient is sent to the hospital and up to 5 groups of antibiotics are prescribed at the same time.
Physiotherapy is used as an adjunct and is only used in combination with medication.
It is impossible to treat the prostate with physiotherapy devices until the symptoms of exacerbation are completely eliminated.
Types of physiotherapy:
- electrical stimulation;
- laser treatment;
- transrectal magnetotherapy;
- phonophoresis and phototherapy;
- prostate massage.
Physiotherapy works best for chronic and congestive prostatitis.
But with an infectious and calculating disease, massage should be abandoned - this will only help the infection to spread faster to nearby organs or set stones in motion.
Surgical treatment can be radical (removal of the prostate) or mild (removal of part of the prostate or injections to narrow it).
- stricture of the urethra, phimosis of the glans and acute urinary retention;
- purulent process in the tissues of the prostate and in nearby organs;
- stagnation of the secretion of the prostate in its cavity due to malfunction of the seminal vesicles;
- stones in the prostate cavity;
- adenoma of the prostate or sclerotic changes in its tissues.
What is prostate adenoma in men? It is a benign lump that is most often treated with surgical methods. It is a consequence of chronic prostatitis and occurs in men after 50 years.
This type of treatment is not the best option, as it targets the effect of the disease and not its cause.
In addition, it is not able to regain the lost health: it will only slow down the development of the disease.
Well-known folk recipes should be used only in addition to the main treatment prescribed by a doctor.
- take decoctions of chamomile, calendula, birch buds, sage;
- the use of alcoholic tinctures of St. John's Wort and Echinacea;
- wear urological patches with plant extracts;
- the use of propolis, ichthyol or sea buckthorn candles.
It is impractical to use folk remedies as the main treatment.
They will not be able to slow the progression of the disease or cure it, and precious time will already be wasted.
Preventive measures are aimed at eliminating the factors contributing to the development of prostatitis and the timely diagnosis of an existing disease.
- strengthen the immune system;
- refusal of casual sex;
- timely treatment of infectious and venereal diseases;
- quitting smoking and excessive alcohol consumption;
- healthy diet, exclusion from the diet of spicy and smoked foods, carbonated drinks, energy drinks;
- fight against stress;
- avoid hypothermia and overheating;
- wear loose underwear made from natural materials;
- regular sports, exercise therapy (jogging, walking, abdominal exercises, squats, "birch"), long walks.
A good sex life is important to prevent prostatitis. Such phenomena as artificially prolonged or interrupted intercourse, repeated intercourse is completely unacceptable.
Sexual life should be regular: prolonged abstinence is unacceptable, as well as sexual arousal that does not end with ejaculation.
In addition, every man should have a routine examination by a urologist every six months. The doctor will notice the signs of an emerging disease and prescribe appropriate treatment.
Prostatitis at the initial stage is much easier to cure than a chronic disease.